Elsevier, Octavo, paperback, tables and graphs.
The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. It is an updated, 3rd English edition of the most widely cited book on quantitative analysis of multivariate ecological data. It relates ecological questions to methods of statistical analysis, with a clear description of complex numerical methods. All methods are illustrated by examples from the ecological literature so that ecologists clearly see how to use the methods and approaches in their own research. All calculations are available in R language functions.
Elsevier, Octavo, paperback, tables and graphs.
The world’s ecosystems are increasingly threatened by human development. Ecological impact assessment (EcIA) is used to predict and evaluate the impacts of development on ecosystems and their components, providing the information needed to ensure that ecological issues are given full and proper consideration in development planning. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has emerged as a key to sustainable development by integrating social, economic and environmental issues in many countries. EcIA has a major part to play as a component of EIA but also has other potential applications in environmental planning and management. Ecological Impact Assessment provides a comprehensive review of the EcIA process and summarizes the ecological theories and tools which can be used to understand, explain and evaluate the ecological consequences of development proposals. It is intended for the many individuals and companies involved in EIA and EcIA, as well as other areas of environmental management where impacts on ecosystems need to be evaluated. It will benefit planners, regulators, environmental consultants and scientists and will also provide an invaluable source-book and guide for the growing number of undergraduate students taking courses in applied ecology, EIA and related topics in environmental science.
Long-term ecological data are critical for informing long-term trends in biodiversity and environmental change. The Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) is a major initiative of the Australian Government and one of its key areas of investment is to provide funding for a network of longterm ecological research plots around Australia (LTERN). This book highlights some of the temporal changes in the environment and/or in biodiversity that have occurred in different ecosystems, ranging from tropical rainforests, wet eucalypt forests and alpine regions through to rangelands and deserts. Many important trends and changes are documented and they often provide new insights that were previously poorly understood or unknown. These data are precisely the kinds of data so desperately needed to better quantify the temporal trajectories in the environment and biodiversity in Australia.
An effective response to bushfires relies on accurate predictions of fire behaviour, particularly the rate of spread, intensity and ‘spotting’. This field guide has been developed to provide a systematic method for assessing fuel hazard and predicting potential fire behaviour in dry eucalypt forest. It will assist in making vital decisions that ensure the protection of fire crews and the community. This guide integrates Project Vesta research findings with the Victorian Overall Fuel Hazard Guide and is applicable to dry eucalypt forests throughout southern Australia. Fuel assessment is based on the hazard scoring system employed during Project Vesta which investigated the effects of fuel age and understorey vegetation structure on fire behaviour in these forests. Information provided in this guide can be used to: define and identify different fuel layers and components of fuel structure and hazard; determine the hazard score of surface and near-surface fuel layers and the height of the near-surface fuel for fire spread prediction; determine elevated fuel height for flame height prediction; and determine surface fuel hazard score and bark hazard score for spotting distance prediction. The guide provides tables to predict the potential rate of spread of a bushfire burning in dry eucalypt forest under summer conditions, and can also be used to predict flame height and maximum spotting distance. The guide also allows users to determine the moisture content of fine dead fuels throughout the day, and to account for the effect of slope on the rate of spread of a fire.
Along with reproduction, balancing energy expenditure with the limits of resource acquisition is essential for both a species and a population to survive. But energy is a limited resource, as we know well, so birds and mammals—the most energy-intensive fauna on the planet—must reduce energy expenditures to maintain this balance, some taking small steps, and others extreme measures.
Here Brian K. McNab draws on his over sixty years in the field to provide a comprehensive account of the energetics of birds and mammals, one fully integrated with their natural history. McNab begins with an overview of thermal rates—much of our own energy is spent maintaining our 98.6?F temperature—and explains how the basal rate of metabolism drives energy use, especially in extreme environments. He then explores those variables that interact with the basal rate of metabolism, like body size and scale and environments, highlighting their influence on behavior, distribution, and even reproductive output. Successive chapters take up energy and population dynamics and evolution. A critical central theme that runs through the book is how the energetic needs of birds and mammals come up against rapid environmental change and how this is hastening the pace of extinction.